This period was known as the Trienio Liberal. Except in Greece, the rest fails. In it the French-Spanish joint military invasion of Portugal-which had joined England and was allowed to make the passage of French troops through Spanish territory, becoming the precursor of the French invasion of the Iberian peninsula after provisions and War of Spanish Independence. In 1810, the … Russian army officers led about 3,000 soldiers in a rejection of Emperor Nicholas I's assumption of the throne hours before, as Nicholas's elder brother Constantine had removed himself (non-publicly) from the line of succession. The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising (Russian: Восстание декабристов, romanized: Vosstanie dekabristov, lit. "This unusual circumstance explains why in 1820 it was Portugal that declared independence from Brazil, and only afterwards, that Brazil declared its independence from Portugal", as one may read in the Manifesto issued by the rebels in Oporto in 1820: "[...] The idea of the status of a colony to which Portugal in effect is reduced afflicts deeply all those citizens who still conserve a sentiment of national dignity. In our days it has been affirmed by English writers, with an express allusion to the present Spanish revolution, on the one hand that the movement of 1820 was but a military conspiracy, and on the other that it was but a Russian intrigue. The revolution began with a mutiny under the leadership of Riego y Néñez in Cádiz in January 1820, which caused a revolt throughout the country. Hubo una serie de pronunciamientos militares liberales entre 1816 y 1820 que fracasaron. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. In 1808, after arriving in Brazil, the Portuguese decided to open the ports of Brazil to “all friendly nations”. However, the strength of the revolutionary movement of 1820 ebbed as quickly as it had risen. In 1820 Major Rafael de Riego led a revolt among troops quartered in Cadiz while awaiting embarkation to America. General Augustín de Iturbide signed the Plan of Iguala to establish the new nation. The last days of Pope John Paul II - The untold stories (Cnn) - Duration: 1:28:11. admin karol Recommended for you The constitution of 1812 was reestablished together with other … [2], The Liberal Revolution of 1820 began with a military insurrection in the city of Porto, in northern Portugal, that quickly and peacefully spread to the rest of the country. The Revolution resulted in the return in 1821 of the Portuguese Court to Portugal from Brazil, where its members had fled during the Peninsular War, and initiated a constitutional period in which the 1822 Constitution was ratified and implemented.[3]. A rebellion in Spain was also suppressed, though only after several years, foreshadowing more than a century of recurrent political instability; the revolution also confirmed Spain’s loss of most of its American colonies, which had first risen during the Napoleonic occupation. The Treaty of Fontainebleau signed by Spain to France. Revolutions of 1820: Naples In Naples the secret society known as the Carbonari had made several attempts at revolution between 1817 and 1820. Entangled in the ideological currents of the French Revolution, colonial emancipation and Atlantic-World citizenship ideals, the Cadiz Constitution, the Spanish Revolution of 1820–23, and its robust resonance throughout Europe remains a fascinating but understudied subject. The first revolutionary wavetook place from 1820 on: 1. The 1820 revolution began in Sicily and in Naples, against King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies, who was forced to make concessions and promise a constitutional monarchy. A Greek revolution against Ottoman control fared…. The main objective of the revolutions in Spain, Portugal, and Italy was to establish constitutional monarchies. The Spanish Revolution of 1820 by Matt Stout Revolutions of Italy in 1848 FINAL OUTCOME -King Charles Albert's Italian rebellion was no match for the massive Austrian army, and was defeated. Fue restaurado el absolutismo en 1814 bajo Fernando VII, quien rechazó jurar la Constitución española de 1812 (la llamada de Cádiz). José María Paz made from Córdoba a league of provinces, and so did Rosas. When he had been put into power, he pledged to abide by the Cortes, but once he gained power, he abolished the constitution and ruled alone. The Portuguese royal family was escorted by British navy to Brazil to escape from Napoleon’s troops. Revolution of 1820-23. Print; Main. The Revolutions of 1820 took place in Europe, particularly in Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Greece.It was considered as a revolutionary wave. January, 1820 -Spanish revolution was a revolution against King Bourbon Ferdinand VII of Spain. 'Uprising of the Decembrists') took place in Imperial Russia on 26 December [O.S. Unlike the revolutionary wave in the 1830s, these tended to take place in the peripheries of Europe.[1]. The revolutions began in Spain, where King Ferdinand VII followed a firmly reactionary policy. 1936-1939: The Spanish civil war and revolution A short history of the Spanish civil war and revolution which broke out in response to the right-wing and fascist coup attempt of General Franco. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The Decembrist revolution (Spanish: Revolución decembrina) was a military coup in the Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Learn how and when to remove this template message, removed himself (non-publicly) from the line of succession, Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states, Museum of the Risorgimento (Castelfidardo), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Revolutions_during_the_1820s&oldid=999908902, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from October 2013, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 January 2021, at 15:35. 14 December] 1825. In 1820 the army that was to subdue the colonies revolted against the king in a pronunciamiento organized by Major Rafael de Riego y Núñez and supported by the local liberals organized in Masonic lodges. Portugal, being a long term ally of Britain, ignored the Continental System imposed by Napoleon which forbade countries to continue trade with England. The revolution of 1820 brought into power the “jailbirds”—liberals of the 1812 vintage who had been persecuted by Ferdinand VII. Spain and Portugal In 1807 the Portuguese royal family and court had to flee from Portugal due to Napoleon’s approaching armies. The revolution of 1820 brought into power the “jailbirds”—liberals of the 1812 vintage who had been persecuted by Ferdinand VII. On 1 January 1820 the liberal officers of a regiment destined to sail for South Americarose in revolt and marched on Madrid, demanding a constitution. 18th century - The War of the Spanish Succession loses Spain its European possessions outside the Iberian Peninsula. The conflict ended a short time after the unexpected capture of Paz, who mistook enemy troops for his own. The main driving force of the second Spanish revolution was the army, which had become revolutionized during the anti-French national-liberation war of 1808–13. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/event/Spanish-Revolution-of-1820, history of Europe: The conservative reaction. The first U.S. study of the Spanish Revolution was Trotskyist Felix Morrow's pamphlet Civil War in Spain (September 1936), followed a little over a year later by his full-length Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Spain. Juan Lavalle, returning with the troops that fought in the Argentine-Brazilian War, performed a coup on December 1, 1828, capturing and killing the governor Manuel Dorrego and ultimately closing the legislature. This success inspired Carbonari in the north of Italy to revolt too. Justice is administered from Brazil to the loyal people in Europe [...]"[4]. There was a revolutionary wave in Europe around 1820, that started in Spain and later extended to some other European countries (most significantly to peripheric ones). The King of Sardinia also called for Austrian intervention. -Austria remains in control of northern Italy -REVOLUTION NOT SUCCESSFUL CAUSES EFFECTS -The revolution began and was led by the state The 1820 revolution began in Sicily and in Naples, against King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies, who was forced to make concessions and promise a constitutional monarchy. General Santa Anna replaced Iturbide and declared a Republic. Start studying spanish revolution of 1820. Study of the influence of the Spanish Revolution of 1820-1823 upon the liberation movement in Russia has hitherto not gone beyond research into the Decembrist movement. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The war lasted for three years and ended with Franco's victory, aided by fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. Faced with an enemy overwhelmingly superior in number, the Carbonari revolts collapsed and their leaders fled into exile. In February 1821, it sent an army to crush the revolution in Naples. The Spanish Revolution was a workers' social revolution that began during the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 and resulted in the widespread implementation of anarchist and more broadly libertarian socialist organizational principles throughout various portions of the country for two to three years, primarily Catalonia, Aragon, Andalusia, and parts of the Valencian Community. King Ferdinand VII provoked widespread unrest, particularly in the army, by refusing to accept the liberal Spanish Constitution of 1812. "The Spanish American Revolutions" is a traditional history originally written in 1973 and updated in 1986. Moreover, his determination to restore Spanish rule over its rebellious American colonies was proving costly in lives and money and seemed increasingly hopeless. American radicals, especially anarchists, have written prodigiously on the subject ever since. Mexico free from Spanish rule 02/24/1821. Another major theme is the way the revolutions led to major and remarkably destructive civil wars throughout Spanish America. On July 18, Spanish garrisons rose up in revolt all across Spain. Revolutionaries captured Avellino and General Pepe defected to their cause. However, they turned against concurrent revolutionaries in Sicily. Greta Thunberg se ha convertido en fuente de inspiración para niños y adolescentes de todo el mundo. Revolutions during the 1820s included revolutions in Russia (Decembrist revolt), Spain, Portugal, and Italy for constitutional monarchies, and for independence from Ottoman rule in Greece. The revolution of 1820 brought into power -A civil war in Spain fought between royalists and liberals. The constitution of 1812 was reestablished together with other liberal legislation, including the sale of monastic property. Spanish American Independence It took the Spanish American colonies much longer to mobilize and move toward revolution than the colonies of North America Why? All the revolutionary movements of 1820 are characterized by the participation of popular classes. which spurred the French invasion to end the Spanish Revolution. Had little tradition of self-government Societies much more authoritarian and divided by class In 1821, the Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont) obtained a constitutional monarchy as a result of Carbonari's actions, as well as other reforms of liberalism. The author, John Lynch, was professor of … The King sought to reclaim the Spanish colonies in the Americas that had recently revolted successfully, consequently depriving Spain from an important source of revenue. In a particularly ironic development, Mexico was finally driven into independence when the Liberal revolution of 1820 threatened to undercut creole domination of Mexico. Mexican Revolution 1820-1920. 1 Jan–9 Mar 1820 Riego’s Revolution In January 1820 Colonel Rafael del Riego led a liberal revolt in Seville province, Spain, quickly gaining support among soldiers being gathered to fight the independence movements in Spanish America. King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies (17591825) gave in at the first sign of opposition in 1820 and accepted a constitution. This happenned, basically, because (a) of revolutionary contagion and (b) of common causes, shared by the affected countries. https://www.patreon.com/Jabzy https://twitter.com/JabzyJoe Music - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCjMZjGhrFq_4llVS_x2XJ_w Texas declared independence King Ferdinand VII agreed, but secretly asked for aid from the Congress system which, in the Congress of Verona of 1822, agreed to have France send 100,000 troops, which promptly defeated Riego's forces and reinstalled an absolute monarchy. The rancher Juan Manuel de Rosas organized militias that fought against Lavalle and removed him from power, restoring the legislature. According to Kenneth Maxwell, "the important point about Brazil is that it became economically and politically emancipated between 1808 and 1820 while acting as the centre of the Luso-Brazilian Empire", meaning Brazil's independence was proclaimed after the nation had had an "imperial-like" experience. Workers and peasants fought the uprising, but in many cities the Republican government denied … Spanish Civil War 1820-1823. This success inspired Carbonari in the north of Italy to revolt too. Garrison mutinies were not unusual, but Riego issued a pronunciamiento or declaration of principles, to the troops, which was directed against the government and which called for the army to support adoption of the 1812 constitution. Because these events occurred in December, the rebels became known as the Decembrists (Russian: Декабристы, romanized: Dekabristy). Colonel Rafael del Riego led a large part of the Spanish army in a mutiny, demanding that the liberal constitution of 1812 be restored. The revolutions of 1820 took place primarily in the countries of the Mediterranean arch. They were minority movements, with a “broad” program that is not very precise, with a liberal and democratic-radical tendency. For the majority of the Spanish people, it was like the unknown god worshipped by the ancient Athenians. Mexico delcared a Republic 1823. However, as the coup had reignited the Argentine Civil Wars, Rosas was appointed governor of the Buenos Aires province to wage the war against the Unitarian League. In 1820, the Spanish army revolts against Ferdinand and is led by colonel Rafael Reigo. En agosto de 2018 se convirtió en una destacada figura dentro de las huelgas estudiantiles realizadas en las afueras del Riksdag (Parlamento sueco), generando conciencia hacia el calentamiento global. Decisive action by the king might have stopped them, because they had little popular support, but his in… In 1821, the Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont) obtained a constitutional monarchy as a result of Carbonari's actions, as well as other reforms of liberalism. Revolution began in 1820 in Naples sparked by the success of the Spanish revolution on top of poor economic conditions and stifling oppression. 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